## Confidence Intervals

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

• Textbook: Chapter 8
• Lesson
• Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Confidence Intervals

In everyday terms, a confidence interval is the range of values around a sample statistic (such as mean or proportion) within which clinicians can expect to get the same results if they repeat the study protocol or intervention, including measuring the same outcomes the same ways. As you ask yourself, “Will I get the same results if I use this research?””

## Pennies

In many of the problems from last unit, you were given information about the population. For many of the variables, you assumed the variable had a normal distribution. What if the variables you are studying are not normally distributed? Here is your challenge – if the population is not normal, can you make any inferences about that population from your random samples?

Your instructor will share this Penny Population document with you as an Excel file (attached) that will include the histogram, mean, and standard deviation of this population of penny ages. Your instructor will also share a link to the Sampling Form to be used in step 5. http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2368069

See Example and DB starter video in Unit 5 LiveBinder.

Main Post:

1)   Describe the distribution shape of the population of penny ages (i.e.

## Checking for quality

Topic: Checking for Quality

Scenario: A venture capitalist has just given you several million dollars to develop your dream product! Explain in detail what this product is and why people would buy it. (Think Steve Jobs and the iPhone – did people really think we needed “smartphones” back in 2007?)

Main Post: Now your dream product has gone into production and the manager is asking you, as the statistical expert, to use statistical methods to ensure quality control. See Example and DB starter video in Unit 10 LiveBinder.

1. You will generate a random dataset of N samples of defective proportions by completing the following steps:

a) You will start with a random number by combining the last 2 digits of the year in which you were born plus the day of the month in which you were born. For example

## Measures of Central Tendency and Variation

Understanding descriptive statistics, their measures of center and their variability, helps form the foundation of statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics tell us how frequently an observation occurs, what is considered average, and how far data in our sample deviate from being average. With these statistics, we are able to provide a summary of characteristics from both large and small datasets. Measures of central tendency and variability provide valuable information on their own, and form the cornerstone of the quantitative structures that we build in our research studies.

Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

• OpenStax Textbook: Chapter 2
• Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Instructions

For this Discussion, you will examine central tendency and variability in terms of pulse rate.

Find and record the pulse rate of 10 different people where you work. Tell us a little about the population from which you drew your data. Describe your findings in terms of central tendency and variability.

What are your measures of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode)? Which might be the better measure for central tendency and why?

What is the standard deviation of your data? How variable are the data (range)?

Are there any outliers? Investigate possible reasons for these outliers, and things that might limit them if further study were to be carried out.

What are some variables that should be considered in discussing your measures of central tendency and variation? Is there any skewness in your measured data?

How would you describe this data (i.e. what insights did you gain from this data)?

Writing Requirements

• APA format for in-text citations and list of references

## Hypothesis Testing

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

• Textbook: Chapter 9
• Lesson
• Minimum of 1 scholarly source

Instructions

Describe a hypothesis test study that would help your work or conclusions in some way. Describe what variable would be tested and what would be your guess of the value of that variable. Then include how the result, if the null were rejected or not, might change your conclusions or actions in some way.

Writing Requirements

• APA format for in-text citations and list of references

## Do you believe it

opic: Do you believe it?

Hypothesis testing typically begins with a theory, a claim, or an assertion about a particular parameter (mean, ?, or proportion, p) of a population.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government charged with preventing unfair or deceptive trade practices. It regulates advertising, marketing, and consumer credit practices, and also prevents antitrust agreements and other unfair practices.

The FTC publishes press releases regularly about health and fitness claims athttps://www.ftc.gov/news-events/media-resources/truth-advertising/health-claims

Main Post: Find a claim about a product or service from one of the press releases listed in the FTC website.  Read through these and select one of interest to you that has not been picked by anyone else yet in class. See Example (https://kapextmediassl-a.akamaihd.net/genEd/MM305/1803B/MM305_U7_Post1.pdf) and DB starter video in Unit 7 LiveBinder ( http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2368071 )

1) Summarize the advertising claim as shared in the media. What population parameter (mean

## #6 Comaring Groups using StatCrunch

These are multiple choice questions that just need to be answered.  The required Data Set is attached to this order for use with StatCrunch.

Question 20.05 pts

VARIABLE: MATERNAL AGE

What is the level of measurement?

Interval

Ratio

Nominal

Ordinal

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Question 30.1 pts

VARIABLE: MATERNAL AGE

What descriptive statistic(s) should be used to evaluate this variable?  SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

Measures of central location

Percentages

Frequencies

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Question 40.1 pts

VARIABLE: MATERNAL AGE

What graphic display(s) should be used to evaluate this variable?  SELECT ALL THAT APPLY

Pie chart

Bar chart

Histogram

Stem and leaf plot

Boxplot

Scatterplot

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Question 50.1 pts

VARIABLE: MATERNAL AGE

The tests for normality in each group demonstrate that

This variable should not be evaluated for normality.

This variable is not normally distributed in one or more groups

This variable is normally distributed in each of the groups.

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Question 60.1 pts

VARIABLE: MATERNAL AGE

Are there outliers in the data for this variable in any of the groups?

Yes

## Decision Theory:

For this discussion, you will compose a reflective essay to address the following scenario and questions:

Scenario: You are a business owner faced with an important decision that could potentially be very lucrative. Keep in mind the “Six Steps in Decision Making” as you set-up your decision analysis. See Example and DB starter video in the Unit 3 LiveBinder. Link: http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2368062: Click on correct tabs for each step/information

1.   What is the problem and objective of this decision?

2.   Identify at least 3 alternatives and 3 states of nature.

3.   Create a decision table in Excel.

4.   Identify the potential payoff/losses for each alternative and state of nature and include in your decision table.

5.   Choose two decision strategies and determine the best alternative: (Clearly state the best alternative for each strategy.)

• Optimistic
• Pessimistic
• Criterion of Realism (Hurwicz)

6.   Why did you choose the two strategies? What are the results of the best alternative? What is your final decision?

After you have contemplated the questions above

## Is there a Correlation

Topic: Is there a Correlation?

Main Post: Consider a dataset by visiting the dataset link (http://www.hawkeslearning.com/Statistics/dis/datasets.html) to select a new data set of interest to you. See Example (https://kapextmediassl-a.akamaihd.net/genEd/MM305/1803B/MM305_U8Post1.pdf) and DB starter video in Unit 8 LiveBinder (http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=2368072)

Determine the following information on your selected data set. Be sure to answer all questions using complete sentences.

1.   State the dataset and the two quantitative variables of interest. Do you think there might be a correlation between the two variables (before you analyze the data)? Why or why not.

2.   Create a scatterplot with a simple linear regression. Attach the scatterplot to your post.

3.   Run the regression analysis in Excel Data Analysis. Share the output.

4.   What is the coefficient of determination r2? Summarize the results by stating whether this is a strong or weak relationship. State whether it is a positive or negative relationship. Is this result what you expected?

5.   Use the regression analysis output to determine the linear regression (best fit prediction line) equation.