There is a universal set of leader behaviors always associated with leadership success. 

1. Personality traits, values or intelligence must be inferred from behavior.
True    False


2. The context and style of a leader’s behavior are also factors that affect their ability to build teams.
True    False


3. The study of authentic leadership has gained momentum recently because of the belief that enhancing self-awareness can help people in organizations find more meaning and connection at work.
True    False


4. There is a universal set of leader behaviors always associated with leadership success.
True    False


5. Leaders ultimately must be judged on the basis of a framework of values, not just in terms of their effectiveness.
True    False


6. Most managers exhibiting derailment behavioral patterns are aware of the negative impact they have on others.
True    False


7. Power refers to actual behaviors used by one person to influence another.
True    False


8. Servant leadership puts the emphasis upon listening effectively to others.
True    False


9. The roots of the Great Man theory can be traced back to the early 1900s, when many leadership researchers and the popular press maintained that leaders and followers were essentially the same.
True    False


10. Coercive power is the potential to influence others through the administration of negative sanctions.
True    False


11. The term “personality” reflects a simple description of the person in the eyes of others.
True    False


12. White peers and subordinates generally gave about the same level of ratings for both black and white peers and bosses.
True    False


13. Analytic intelligence is general problem-solving ability and can be assessed using standardized mental abilities tests.
True    False


14. All behavior is under conscious control.
True    False


15. Leaders usually can exert more power during periods of relative calm than during a crisis.
True    False


16. Choice of clothing can affect one’s power and influence.
True    False


17. Stress is often defined as the result of conflicts with superiors or the apprehension associated with performance evaluation.
True    False


18. Expert power involves the authority granted by the organization to the leader in order to influence others.
True    False


19. Emotional intelligence can seldom be developed.
True    False


20. Leaders and followers use development plans as a road map for changing their own behaviors.
True    False


21. Instruments providing 360-degree feedback to managers are particularly useful for leadership development.
True    False


22. The GLOBE project has demonstrated that there are no leader characteristics that are valued positively in some cultures but negatively in others.
True    False


23. Influence is the degree of change in a target person’s attitudes, values, beliefs or behaviors.
True    False


24. In the postconventional level of moral development, the criteria are based on gaining others’ approval.
True    False


25. The three components of community leadership include mobilization, framing and building social capital.
True    False


26. Values play a very small role in conflict between groups.
True    False


27. Thinking styles are not abilities per se, but are preferred ways for using the abilities one has.
True    False


28. Influence tactics refer to one person’s actual behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors.
True    False


29. Analytic intelligence is much more concerned with knowledge and experience than practical intelligence.
True    False


30. Smart but inexperienced leaders were more effective in stressful situations than less intelligent, experienced leaders.
True    False


31. The dark-side traits are usually apparent when leaders are attending to their public image.
True    False


32. Leaders with strong affiliation values enjoy analyzing data to get at the truth.
True    False


33. Reward power is the ability to control benefits and desired resources.
True    False


34. Leadership practitioners have a tendency to concentrate on coaching their solid or top followers.
True    False


35. The strength of the relationship between personality traits and leadership effectiveness is often inversely related to the relative strength of the situation.
True    False


36. Those who derive a sense of satisfaction from influencing others are said to have a high need for affiliation.
True    False


37. Gen Xers tend to be more committed to a specific organization than to their vocation.
True    False


38. Leaders who make Theory Y assumptions believe workers are self-motivated.
True    False


39. Leaders with legitimate power have the widest array of influence tactics available to them.
True    False


40. It has been said that the idea of a generational gap in values may be more popular culture than good social science.
True    False


41. Role plays and videotape are used extensively during informal coaching sessions.
True    False


42. The Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire was developed by Ohio State University researchers.
True    False


43. Ethical problems are almost inherent in systems designed to measure performance.
True    False


44. Having a more open office reflects, but does not affect, power differentials between people.
True    False


45. Referent power is the potential influence one has due to the strength of the relationship between the leader and the followers.
True    False


46. Researchers at the University of Michigan considered job-centered and employee-centered behaviors to be at opposite ends of a single continuum of leadership behavior.
True    False


47. Teams with higher levels of cohesiveness are more creative than teams that do not get along.
True    False


48. The most salient aspect of any culture typically involves behavior.
True    False


49. The primary role of leaders is not so much to be creative themselves as to build an environment where others can be creative.
True    False


50. Values play a key role in what data leaders review and how they define problems.
True    False


51. Behavioral manifestations of personality traits are often exhibited with conscious thought.
True    False


52. One’s ability to reason about hypothetical moral issues is an assurance that one will act morally.
True    False


53. A leader is in the best position to use “hard” influence tactics such as legitimizing and pressure tactics after developing a strong base of referent power.
True    False


54. The Nexter generation will revive the ideal of the common man, whose virtue is defined less by self than by a collegial center of gravity.
True    False


55. The need for power has been found to be positively related to all the following leadership effectiveness criteria, except
A. Success of nontechnical managers
B. Success of technical managers
C. Managers’ performance ratings
D. Managers’ promotion rates


56. A person’s all-around effectiveness in activities directed by thought is called
A. Motivation
B. Intelligence
C. Perception
D. Cognition


57. A leader who has developed close interpersonal relationships with followers generally uses his or her _____ power to influence them.
A. Legitimate
B. Referent
C. Coercive
D. Reward


58. The two dimensions of the Leadership Grid are
A. Communication and listening
B. Concern for people and concern for production
C. Known to others and known to oneself
D. Introversion-extroversion and thinking-perceiving


59. Which of the following statements concerning 360-degree feedback systems is false?
A. Companies that used 360-degree feedback systems had a 10.6 percent decrease in shareholder value
B. Most 360-degree feedback systems are designed to make comparisons between people
C. 360-degree feedback are data based and provide good development feedback
D. It provides insight into self-perceptions and others’ perceptions of leadership skills


60. Individuals higher in surgency
A. Prefer to work by themselves
B. Are not interested in competing with others
C. Have relatively little interest in influencing others
D. Appear self-confident


61. Constructs representing generalized behaviors or states of affairs that are considered by the individual to be important are
A. Goals
B. Values
C. Benefits
D. Services


62. The ability to produce work that is both novel and useful is called
A. Practical intelligence
B. Social intelligence
C. Analytic intelligence
D. Creative intelligence


63. These managerial types have gained insight into their dark-side traits and have found ways to negate their debilitating effects on followers.
A. Competent Managers
B. Results Only Managers
C. Cheerleaders
D. In Name Only Managers


64. The generation of workers born after 1980 are called the
A. Gen Xers
B. Nexters
C. Baby Boomers
D. Veterans


65. Which of the following is an intrinsic reward?
A. Compensation
B. Praise
C. Personal growth
D. Time off


66. Creative people are most likely to focus on
A. The need to meet deadlines
B. Impressing others
C. Making money
D. Solving the problem at hand


67. According to research done using the Hogan Personality Inventory, the best predictor of a leadership job offer after an interview and successful completion of an overseas leadership assignment is
A. Surgency
B. Agreeableness
C. Openness to experience
D. Dependability


68. In this step of informal coaching, leaders determine what drives their followers and where they want to go with their careers.
A. Forging a partnership
B. Inspire commitment
C. Growing skills
D. Promote persistence


69. _____ power is a function of the amount of knowledge one possesses relative to the rest of the members of a group.
A. Reward
B. Referent
C. Coercive
D. Expert


70. In comparison with other managerial types, Competent Managers have
A. Moderate levels of dependability
B. Lower scores on surgency trait measures
C. Extremely high levels of agreeableness
D. Lower adjustment scores


71. The ability to control others through the fear of punishment or the loss of valued outcomes is
A. Expert power
B. Reward power
C. Legitimate power
D. Coercive power


72. What is the ultimate test of a servant leader’s work?
A. Whether they understand others’ feelings and perspectives
B. Whether it helps re-create a sense of community among people
C. Whether they can influence others through their persuasiveness
D. Whether those served develop toward being more responsible and competent individuals


73. Leaders with strong _____ values enjoy competition, being seen as influential and drive hard to make an impact.
A. Recognition
B. Altruistic
C. Power
D. Hedonism


74. Community leaders
A. Have positional power
B. Can get tasks accomplished
C. Tend to have fewer resources
D. Can discipline followers who do not adhere to organizational norms


75. Building social capital
A. Helps a community decide what needs to be done
B. Is the power of relationships shared between individuals
C. Is engaging a critical mass to take action to achieve a specific outcome
D. Helps a group decide how something needs to be done


76. This occurs when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity.
A. Rational persuasion
B. Ingratiation
C. Consultation
D. Personal appeal


77. Mobilization is about
A. Allowing individuals to make choices about what they can purchase
B. Maintaining relationships that allow people to work together in a community across their differences
C. Helping a group recognize and define its opportunities and issues in ways that result in effective action
D. Strategic, planned purposeful activity to achieve clearly defined outcomes


78. ”I remain calm in pressure situations.” This behavioral aspect corresponds to which FFM personality dimension?
A. Openness to Experience
B. Adjustment
C. Dependability
D. Agreeableness


79. This occurs when the organization assigns a relatively inexperienced but high-potential leader to one of the top executives in the company.
A. Informal coaching
B. Informal mentoring
C. Formal coaching
D. Formal mentoring


80. Followers are more likely to use _____ power to change their leader’s behavior if they have a relatively high amount of referent power with their fellow co-workers.
A. Reward
B. Coercive
C. Legitimate
D. Expert


81. Often leaders will need to find ways to resolve a problem if bureaucratic rules are invoked by followers. If this is the case, then the followers will have successfully used _____ power to influence their leader.
A. Legitimate
B. Coercive
C. Referent
D. Reward


82. Coalition tactics
A. Are used when agents seek the aid of others to influence the target
B. Occur when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity
C. Occur when the agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request
D. Are used when agents ask another to do a favor out of friendship


83. In the preconventional level of moral development, the criteria for moral behavior
A. Are based primarily on self-interest
B. Are based primarily on gaining others’ approval
C. Are based on universal, abstract principles
D. Are based primarily on behaving conventionally


84. The leadership competency of helping a group or community recognize and define its opportunities and issues in ways that result in effective action is
A. Framing
B. Building social capital
C. Mobilization
D. Interaction facilitation


85. Students in a school for the mentally challenged did very poorly on standardized tests yet consistently found ways to defeat the school’s elaborate security system. In this situation the students possessed a relatively high level of
A. Social intelligence
B. Analytic intelligence
C. Practical intelligence
D. Creative intelligence


86. Sigmund Freud believed that the intrapsychic tensions among the id, ego and _____ caused one to behave in characteristic ways even if the real motives behind the behaviors were unknown to the person.
A. Superego
B. Alter ego
C. Conscience
D. Mind


87. _____ is exercised in the service of higher goals to others or organizations and often involves self-sacrifice toward those ends.
A. Influence
B. Personalized power
C. Socialized power
D. Influence tactics


88. Which of these refers to how much a leader is friendly and supportive toward subordinates?
A. Goal emphasis
B. Consideration
C. Initiating structure
D. Work facilitation


89. Leaders who pull people together on the basis of shared beliefs and a common sense of organizational purpose and belonging
A. Are consistent
B. Demonstrate empathy
C. Have a compelling vision
D. Have a strong integrity


90. Research findings by French and Raven generally indicates that leaders who relied primarily on _____ and _____ power had subordinates who were more motivated and satisfied, were absent less and performed better.
A. Referent; expert
B. Coercive; referent
C. Expert; reward
D. Reward; legitimate


91. Derailed managers exhibiting the derailment pattern that has to do with an inability to build relationships with coworkers are characterized by which of the following?
A. Failure to staff effectively
B. Organizational isolation
C. Lack of hard work
D. Difficulty making strategic transitions


92. These managerial types typically have lower scores on surgency trait measures.
A. Competent managers
B. In Name Only managers
C. Results Only managers
D. Cheerleaders


93. In general, researchers have reported that subordinates are more satisfied when
A. Leaders monitored results
B. Leaders set clear goals
C. Leaders exhibit a high level of consideration
D. Leaders explained what followers were to do


94. As a group, this generation of workers tends to be technologically savvy, independent and skeptical of institutions and hierarchy.
A. The Nexters
B. The Veterans
C. The Baby Boomers
D. The Gen Xers


95. Influence is
A. The potential to influence others
B. The capacity to produce effects on others
C. The degree of actual change in a target person’s values
D. Attributed to others on the basis of influence tactics they use


96. What is traditionally viewed as creativity and are skills that help people recognize novel patterns or connections?
A. Practical intelligence
B. Analytic intelligence
C. Synthetic ability
D. Intrinsic motivation


97. Which of the following refers to one person’s actual behaviors designed to change another person’s attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors?
A. Power
B. Influence
C. Authority
D. Influence tactics


98. Which of the following is not a source for 360-degree feedback?
A. Peers
B. Self
C. Customers
D. Direct reports


99. Which of the following statements is true?
A. The head of an organization is always a true leader
B. Legitimate authority and leadership are similar
C. Holding a position and being a leader are synonymous
D. Effective leaders intuitively realize they need more than legitimate power to be successful


100. Power
A. Is the capacity to cause change
B. Always needs to be exercised to have its effect
C. Is the degree of actual change
D. Is always directly observed


101. ”Because of their narcissistic tendencies, these leaders often get quite a bit done. But their feelings of entitlement and inability to learn from experience often results in trails of bruised followers.” Which dark-side personality trait is defined by this statement?
A. Bold
B. Excitable
C. Skeptical
D. Cautious


102. Policemen giving tickets for speeding is an example of
A. Legitimate power
B. Reward power
C. Coercive power
D. Expert power


103. Moral reasoning refers to
A. The process leaders use to make decisions about values and ethics
B. The espoused values of individuals
C. The morality of individuals per se
D. The process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviors


104. These managerial types have the highest adjustment scores.
A. Cheerleaders
B. Competent Managers
C. Results Only Managers
D. In Name Only Managers


105. Behaviors concerned with motivating subordinates to accomplish the task at hand are called
A. Interaction facilitation behaviors
B. Work facilitation behaviors
C. Goal emphasis behaviors
D. Leader support behaviors


106. Goal emphasis and work facilitation relate to which of the following leadership behavior dimensions?
A. Job-centered
B. Employee-centered
C. Coaching
D. Mentoring


107. Relationships that lack trust are characterized by self-protective efforts to control and verify each other’s behavior. This relates to which organizational level of principle-centered leadership?
A. Interpersonal
B. Personal
C. Managerial
D. Organizational


108. ’Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get work out while maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level.’ In terms of the Leadership Grid, what leadership orientation does this signify?
A. Team management
B. Country Club management
C. Impoverished management
D. Middle-of-the-road management


109. Dutiful leaders
A. Tend to blame others for their mistakes
B. Frustrate and disempower their staffs through micro-management
C. Deal with stress by sucking up to superiors
D. Are unconcerned about the welfare of their staff


110. Which dark-side personality trait is often associated with extremely high dependability scores?
A. Excitable
B. Diligent
C. Skeptical
D. Colorful


111. _____ involves reinterpreting otherwise immoral behavior in terms of a higher purpose.
A. Advantageous comparison
B. Moral justification
C. Displacement of responsibility
D. Euphemistic labeling


112. The veterans
A. Grew up during the era of the Watergate scandal
B. Have been a stabilizing force in organizations for decades
C. Work to live rather than live to work
D. Have little respect for and less interest in leaders


113. Leaders following the authentic leadership approach
A. Put on a different act with different audiences
B. Have realistic self-perceptions
C. Do whatever it takes to assure that things run smoothly
D. Have misperceptions of self


114. When a minister makes an impassioned plea to members of his congregation about the good works which could be accomplished if a proposed addition to the church were built, he is
A. Making a personal appeal
B. Making an inspirational appeal
C. Making a rational persuasion
D. Using ingratiation


115. Competencies concerned with analyzing issues, making decisions, financial savvy and strategic thinking constitute the
A. Intrapersonal skills category
B. Leadership skills category
C. Interpersonal skills category
D. Business skills category


116. Leaders high in initiating structure engage in
A. Monitoring subordinates’ performance levels
B. Speaking up for subordinates’ interests
C. Caring about subordinates’ personal situations
D. Showing appreciation for subordinates’ work


117. Theory Y reflects a view that most people
A. Need to be coaxed to work productively
B. Are not naturally motivated to work
C. Need to be coerced to work productively
D. Are intrinsically motivated by their work


118. Which set of leaders will perform best under stressful conditions?
A. Leaders with less experience
B. Leaders with more experience
C. Leaders with less intelligence
D. Leaders with more intelligence


119. Work facilitation behaviors deal with
A. Leaders acquiring and allocating resources
B. Leaders motivating subordinates to accomplish the task at hand
C. Leaders showing concern for subordinates
D. Leaders minimizing conflicts among followers


120. Managers with this orientation rely heavily on coercive, external-control methods to motivate workers such as punishments and threats.
A. Theory X
B. Theory Y
C. Veterans
D. Baby Boomers


121. Which of the following underlies the derailment pattern of the inability of managers to lead and build a team?
A. The presence of dark side traits
B. Inadequate distribution channels
C. Poor decisions concerning which products to develop
D. Lying about business results


122. What do leaders with strong recognition values value the most?
A. Achievement
B. Fame
C. Meeting new people
D. Moral rules


123. These skills and behaviors do not involve interacting with others and are among the most difficult to change.
A. Intrapersonal
B. Interpersonal
C. Leadership
D. Business


124. Leaders who demonstrate empathy with us
A. Pull people together on the basis of shared beliefs
B. Show they understand the world as we see and experience it
C. Have common sense of organizational purpose and belonging
D. Demonstrate their commitment to higher principles through their actions


125. The personality dimension of openness to experience is also known as
A. Conscientiousness
B. Self-control
C. Intellectance
D. Empathy


126. Leaders with these values are motivated by pleasure, variety and excitement and can often be found in the entertainment, hospitality, recreation, sports, sales or travel industries.
A. Tradition
B. Hedonism
C. Altruistic
D. Affiliation


127. Leaders higher in adjustment tend to
A. Take mistakes personally
B. Become tense
C. Hide their emotions
D. Lose their temper when stressed


128. Which of the following statements about 360-degree feedback systems is true?
A. 360-degree feedback results affect behavioral change per se
B. 360-degree feedback are the only sources of “how” feedback for leadership practitioners
C. 360-degree feedback should be built around an organization’s competency model
D. It is mandatory for all leaders to receive 360-degree feedback


129. Terrorists may call themselves “freedom fighters,” and firing someone may be referred to as “letting him go.” This is an example of
A. Moral justification
B. Diffusion of responsibility
C. Euphemistic labeling
D. Advantageous comparison


130. Which of the following statements concerning power and influence is incorrect?
A. Effective leaders typically take advantage of all their sources of power
B. Leaders in well-functioning firms are not influenced by their subordinates
C. Leaders vary in the extent to which they share power with subordinates
D. Effective leaders generally work to increase their various power bases


131. A salesperson’s good-natured or flattering banter with you before you make a decision about purchasing a product exemplifies
A. Rational persuasion
B. Consultation
C. Personal appeal
D. Ingratiation


132. Lower prudence, higher openness to experience and higher surgency scores are related to
A. Intrinsic motivation
B. Personality factors
C. Analytic intelligence
D. Environmental factors


133. People typically use legitimizing or pressure tactics when
A. They are at a disadvantage
B. An influencer has the upper hand
C. They expect resistance
D. Parties are relatively equal in power


134. Which of the following statements concerning servant leadership is true?
A. The leader’s primary role is to do whatever it takes to assure that things run smoothly
B. It is derived from a bureaucratic view of organizations
C. It places emphasis upon listening effectively to others
D. It has commonly involved a very top-down and hierarchical approach to leadership


135. When students respond positively to advice or requests from teachers who are well-liked and respected, it can be inferred that the teachers have
A. Expert power
B. Referent power
C. Legitimate power
D. Coercive power


136. Film directors, musical conductors or marketing leaders are examples of leaders with strong
A. Affiliation values
B. Power values
C. Security values
D. Aesthetics values


137. Many aspects of office arrangements can affect a leader’s or follower’s power. Which of the following statements is true in relation to this?
A. Specific seating arrangements at circular tables do not affect participants’ interactions
B. Rectangular tables facilitate communication
C. Individuals sitting at the ends of rectangular tables often wield more power
D. Rectangular tables minimize status differentials


138. Seventy to eighty percent of the action steps in a development plan should be
A. Observation
B. Past experience
C. Job related
D. Acquiring new knowledge


139. The insight component of the development pipeline concerned with
A. On-the-job experiences
B. Providing leaders accurate feedback on their strengths
C. Acquiring new knowledge and skills
D. Working on development goals that matter


140. Which of the following pertains to the amount of time people take to prepare for an interview and their overall job performance and satisfaction?
A. Openness to experience
B. Agreeableness
C. Surgency
D. Dependability

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