Respond to your colleagues by determining the following:
- Whether the outcome addresses the stated learning gap; if it does not appropriately address the learning gap, rewrite the outcome to address the gap or learning need.
- Whether the objectives address the stated domain; if the objective does not address the stated domain, identify the domain that it addresses as written and rewrite the objective for the stated domain. important role of the nursing professional development professional (NPD) is to identify gaps and implement education to improve patient outcomes. Standards 3 and 4 of the Nursing Professional Development Scope and Standards of Practice discuss identifying desired outcomes and determining appropriate interventions to meet those outcomes (Harper & Maloney, 2016). Review of reported information on a 800 bed, Midwestern hospital showed a gap in patients receiving follow-up colonoscopy recommendations. This hospital’s percentage was 29 percent compared to its state average of 90 percent (United States Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2021). This gap has the potential to negatively impact patient outcomes. One possible explanation for this gap is lack of education of nurses and providers on colonoscopy findings, recommended follow-up intervals as well as where to find colonoscopy results in the electronic health record, how to interpret them, and how to properly document communication the patient. This post will discuss closure of this gap including one measurable outcome and three objectives.
Harper and Maloney (2016) define an outcome as “something that follows, is the result of, or the consequence of a project, program, or activity” (p. 63). In the case, the outcome sought is to improve follow-up colonoscopy recommendations through education. Outcomes, however, also need to be measurable. Having an outcome that is measurable provides objective data that the education created by the NPD was successful (Standish & Dickerson, 2017). Furthermore, it is important to identify the people or the target audience who will take part in the learning program (Dickerson, 2015). Since reviewing, interpreting, and communicating recommendations is often a collaborative effort between primary care providers and nurses, they should both be included in the program and in the outcome. One outcome for this situation is primacy care nurses and providers will successfully complete a training program and complete a post-test with 90 percent passing rate within one year. This outcome is measurable and identifies the target audience.
Objectives can be used to achieve an outcome and can be categorized into three domains of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The first level in the taxonomy of the cognitive domain is knowledge, which can mean remembering facts or information (Walden, 2019). One objective for this scenario within the cognitive domain is nurses and providers will list common colonoscopy findings and match them with correct, respective follow-up intervals. The affective domain involves values, beliefs, and emotions (Walden, 2019). One objective for this scenario in the affective domain is nurses and providers will describe the importance of providing follow-up colonoscopy recommendations to patients. This can be linked with the affective domain because the topic of colonoscopy correlates with colon cancer detection and treatment. The word cancer often elicits an emotional response, so the nurses and providers need to understand and value the importance of screening as well as be able to explain the importance to patients. The psychomotor domain involves taking the information learned and applying in hands-on experiences (Walden, 2019). One objective for this scenario within the psychomotor domain is nurses and providers will reproduce how to locate colonoscopy studies and results within the electronic medical record and properly document communication of follow-up recommendations to the patient in the electronic medical record. These objectives exemplify use of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains to achieve the outcome.
Development of program outcomes and objectives should be structured. By using the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains to develop objectives a well-rounded program can be developed.
Dickerson, P. S. (2015). How to write an outcome statement. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(9), 381-383. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20150821-11
Harper, M. G. & Maloney, P. (2016). Nursing professional development: Scope & standards of practice (3rd ed.). Association for Nursing Professional Development.
Standish, C., & Dickerson, P. S. (2017). Establishing measurable outcomes for educational activities and departments. In P. S. Dickerson (Ed.). Core curriculum for nursing professional development (5th ed.)(pp. 114-125). Association for Nursing Professional Development.
United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2021). Hospital compare. https:// https://www.medicare.gov/care-compare/?providerType=Hospital&redirect=true#search
Walden University. (2019). Case study: Program outcomes and learning objectives: Practitioner’s perspective [Video]. Walden University Blackboard. https://class.waldenu.edu