Respond to this post by Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected.

  • Suggest alternative recommendations for drug treatments.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.


  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pathophysiology

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common and preventable. It is caused secondary to inhaling irritants, including tobacco, chemicals, fumes, and pollution (Brashers & Huether, 2019). COPD affects respiratory expiration and presents as chronic bronchitis or emphysema (Brashers & Huether, 2019). The diagnosis is diagnosed based on the patient’s history, symptoms, spirometry, and chest imaging. Spirometry measures the forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and is used for diagnosis, then guides management and treatment (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2019). The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) classifies COPD’s severity by airflow limitation into four levels: GOLD 1, GOLD 2, GOLD 3, or GOLD 4 (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, 2019). The levels guide prevention and management. GOLD also recommends that “those presenting with COPD symptoms be screened for Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) as in 1-3% of the cases are caused by an autosomal recessive antitrypsin deficiency”” (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease