Leukemia

 

Respond to  your colleagues, in one or more of the following ways:

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  • Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected.
  • Suggest alternative recommendations for drug treatments.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

 

 

Leukemia

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          Leukemia is known to affect white blood cell production and its function and varies among the various types of Leukemia (i.e., Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) affects blast cells (immature WBCs), Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) affects lymphocytes, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). According to Cancer.org (2021), approximately 61,090 new cases, 23, 660 deaths among all types of leukemia. Leukemia, according to Oksuzyan (2015), can result from hereditary and environmental factors, mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Chromosomal translocation activates oncogenes (cancer genes), and exposure to chemicals and radiation in the induction and progression of the disease.

          Leukemia symptoms, per cancer.org (2020), can vary based on the type of leukemia; however, the most common symptoms would be swollen lymph nodes (neck and armpits), night sweats, bone pain, fatigue and weakness, rapid weight loss, easy bleeding, and bruising, fever and chills, frequent infections, and red spots on the skin. Treatments for leukemia would include chemotherapy (single or combination of drugs; methotrexate, rituximab, Imatinib), radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation.

          According to Powell (2019), leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells (leukocytes or WBCs), where bone marrow (spongy material in bones) produces malformed WBCs that crowd bone marrow and spill over into the bloodstream and are unable to protect the body from infection. Moreover, these kids tend to incur more viral or bacterial infections than most other kids of their same age groups. Leukemia is the most common cancer in children; however, most kids and teens who undergo treatment can cure the disease.

          Ethnicity does affect leukemia patients at different rates and numbers. According to Mohammadian et al. (2018), Hispanic children are at a greater risk than adults and white adults 12.8 per 100,000, compared to American Indians/Alaskan natives at 7.0 per 100,000 (for both adults and children). The five highest areas of the world with the highest number of leukemia patients are females in China, with 27384 cases. Next is the United States with 17225 cases, the third is India with 12913 cases, the fourth is Russia with 5903 cases, last is Germany with 4767 cases. With the Age-Standardized The incidence rate of leukemia per 100,000 people was listed at 4.7 (5.6 in men and 3.9 in women). African Americans have the highest cancer diagnosis rate, yet their leukemia rates remain low for adults and children (Oksuzyan et al. (2015).  

References:      

Cancer.org. (2020).

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