Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Endocrine and Immune System Infections/Disorders

Respond to this post Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague analyzed.

  • Suggest alternative recommendations for drug treatments.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.


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The endocrine system consists of a network of glands that produce and release

hormones that help maintain important body functions such as the conversion of

calories into energy that fuels cells and organs. According to Eisner, Picard, Hajnoczky

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(2018), the maladaptive and physiological response to any disease process is an

adverse occurrence within Mitochondrial dynamics in the adaptive and maladaptive

cellular stress responses. This paper will provide information on how the endocrine

system influences hormone-related disorders, specifically hyperthyroidism, through the

release of specific hormones into the blood and helps control cellular function and

coordination of body processes. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located below

the Adam’s apple on the front of the neck and consists of two connecting lobes

connected by the isthmus and secretes hormones that regulate growth and

development by controlling rate of metabolism.

When the thyroid is affected by a disease process and it produces too much or too

little of an endocrine hormone, it creates a hormonal imbalance. The imbalance from an

affected an endocrine feedback system that maintains hormonal balance can disrupt

normal hormone production; According to Hershman (2018), with an increase in

circulating T3 results in thyrotoxicosis or hyperthyroidism. Too much thyroid hormone

leads to weight loss, rapid heart rate, sweating, and nervousness. The most common

cause for an overactive thyroid is an autoimmune disease called Grave’s disease as

well as Plummer’s disease and thyroiditis.

          Women tend to develop hyperthyroidism 2 to 10 times more often than men. The

 likelihood increases if there is a family history of thyroid disease, Pernicious anemia,

type 1 diabetes, ingestion of substantial amounts of iodine, or take high doses of

medication, or food containing iodine such as amiodarone or kelp especially women

older then 60 years old. If left untreated can result in serious health issues such as

irregular heartbeats, blood clots, stroke, heart failure, eye disease, vision loss, muscles,

disruption of menstrual cycle fertility problems and osteoporosis (Golden, et al., 2009).

          According to Aleppo (2018), symptoms of hyperthyroidism varies on an

individual basis: they may show any combination of nervousness/irritability,

fatigue/muscle weakness, trouble tolerating heat, trouble sleeping, shaky hands, rapid

heart rate and irregular, weight loss, mood swings, and goiter. In older individuals over

60 years old hyperthyroidism can show as depression or dementia, loss of appetite,

withdrawal from people compared to younger adults.

          Treatment for hyperthyroidism varies depending upon the cause of the

hyperthyroidism and its severity. An individual may receive antithyroid therapy to cause

the thyroid to produce less thyroid hormone (i.e., methimazole or propylthiouracil in

pregnant women), Beta-blockers and Iodides may be prescribed to reduce symptoms

until antithyroid medications reach therapeutic levels. Antithyroid medication is the

easiest way to treat hyperthyroidism; however, other options for treatment are available

if warranted such as radioiodine therapy, or thyroid surgery may be used to bring the

thyroid hormone levels to a normal range and to prevent further long-term health issues

(Bahn, et al., 2011).




Aleppo, G. (2018). Hyperthyroidism Overview: Overactive thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone. Retrieved from overactive thyroid. 


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