1ICT256 Knowledge Management Techniques TJ 2016Assignment 1 The aim of this assignment is for you to review and think about the material in topics 1-4 in more depth. It will involve you doing some research using library and Internet resources.The assignment consists of 3 questions, worth approximately equal marks. You should attempt all questions. All answers should be word processed, spell checked and grammar checked. When you reference sources they MUST be properly acknowledged and referenced: see section ‘Referencing’ next. Note that you may NOT use Wikipedia or the lecture slides as references in any of the questions.Note that many of the questions have several parts to them, and may have several questions within each part. Make sure you answer all parts of the questions.REFERENCINGIf you include references in your answer, you should use a correct style such as Chicago, APA, or another as you prefer. Make use of the style guides available in the library: http://library.murdoch.edu.au/Getting-help/Referencing/ . For example, Chicago is described at http://libguides.murdoch.edu.au/Chicago.Pay particular attention to ensuring you clearly distinguish your own words from those that you are quoting or paraphrasing from other sources: this is very important. See http://our.murdoch.edu.au/Student-life/Study-successfully/Referencing-and-citing/ Please note that copying and pasting a section of text from a source and replacing some of the words using a thesaurus or synonym generator is NOT acceptable.2If you are not sure whether you are referencing or paraphrasing correctly, please ASK – your lecturer/tutor and the Unit Coordinator will be very pleased to help you! It is much better to sort out any misunderstandings early so that you can learn from the process.ACADEMIC INTEGRITYYou should read the Murdoch sites on Academic Integrity at http://our.murdoch.edu.au/Educational-technologies/Academic-integrity/ and How to Avoid Plagiarism athttp://our.murdoch.edu.au/Student-life/Study-successfully/Referencing-and-citing/How-to-avoid-plagiarism/Plagiarism-checking softwareThe University uses software called Urkund which checks your submissions for plagiarism. Urkund is a pattern-matching system designed to compare work submitted by students with other sources from the internet, journals/periodicals, and previous submissions. Its primary purpose is to detect any submitted work that is not original and provide a thorough comparison between the submitted document and the original sources.Question 1 – What is Knowledge Management?The purpose of this question is to demonstrate understanding of the many-sided nature of knowledge management.It addresses the broad learning objectives of:Critically discuss the role and importance of knowledge management in today’s organisations Critically discuss the issues raised by language and cultural diversity in shared knowledge systemsThere are many definitions of knowledge management. Girard and Girard (2015) have recently published a compendium of definitions1. Two of these definitions are given below. The purpose of this question is for you to evaluate these definitions, and to reflect on your own interpretation of the topic, as indicated in questions (a), (b) and (c) below. Please note that you are not expected to read the original papers: simply focus on the definitions as given.? “Knowledge management is the deliberate and systematic coordination of an organization’s people, technology, processes, and organizational structure in order to add value through reuse and innovation. This is achieved through the promotion of creating, sharing, and applying knowledge as well as through the feeding of valuable lessons learned and best practices into corporate memory in order to foster continued organizational learning.”(Dalkir, 2011)1 Girard, J.P., & Girard, J.L. (2015). Defining knowledge management: Toward an applied compendium, Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management. 3(1), 1-20. Available via http://www.johngirard.net/km/3? “A trans-disciplinary approach to improving organisational outcomes and learning through maximising the use of knowledge. It involves the design, implementation and review of social and technological activities and processes to improve the creating, sharing and applying or using of knowledge. Knowledge management is concerned with innovation and sharing behaviours, managing complexity and ambiguity through knowledge networks and connections, exploring smart processes and deploying people-centric technologies.”(Australian Standard AS 5037-2005)References:Dalkir, K., 2011. Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice (second ed.) Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Standards Australia, 2005. Knowledge Management: A Guide. Australian Standard AS 5037-2005. Available at http://infostore.saiglobal.com/store/details.aspx?ProductID=320622TO DO:(a) Compare and contrast the two definitions, by considering the underlying assumptions of each definition and its scope. You should consider such issues as: does it assume a particular view of knowledge (such as personal and subjective, or externalised and objectified)? Is the definition more relevant to practice, or to theory? Is it relevant to a specific field (for example, business) or more generally applicable? Does it rely more on technology, or people? Is it more applicable to a particular culture (for example, Western culture)? In your opinion, what are the most useful aspects of the definition, and why? You should give reasons for each of your answers.(b) Which definition do you think is most useful for KM practice, and why?(c) Consider how your preferred definition in (b) may have been influenced by your own personal perspective on KM (and IT in general). Consider your background and study/work experience before this unit, and any other factors that might influence your perspective. How do you think that this viewpoint would affect the way in which you would approach a KM investigation? Would this be a problem? (Note: there is no single ‘correct’ answer here – the aim is for you to reflect on what you consider knowledge management to be about from your own perspective, and what implications this may have for practice.)You will be marked for this question on the following criteria:? Clearly expressed discussion of the definitions in (a) and (b)? Clearly expressed discussion of your personal perspective in (c)4Question 2 – Knowledge Management Tools and TechniquesThe purpose of this question is to demonstrate understanding of the appropriate use of KM tools for organisational needs.It addresses the broad learning objective of: Analyse a knowledge management problem and recommend appropriate tools and techniques for its solutionThis question relates to Topic 3: Knowledge Sources and KM Tools. In that topic’s lecture slides and associated reading we discussed knowledge management tools under 4 categories of processes:? creating and discovering? explicating and externalising? communicating and sharing? internalising and assimilatingIn this question you are to assess how different KM tools and techniques could apply to the (hypothetical) organisation described in the case study below:“Edutours is an established 30 year old travel company that organises guided tours to places of historical and ecological interest. It was started as a joint venture between retired academics and a university extension service, with the guides accompanying tours to different locations, and providing a historical/political/biological background to the destinations. There are now several tours that run regularly, as well as some that run only once to take advantage of some ‘one-off’ event or destination of interest.For each tour there is a dedicated support staff that works for 3 months before the tour – organising the itinerary, taking into account any problems caused by current or anticipated political events, and cooperating with the academic staff to introduce new research and discoveries into the tour. Edutours have an in-house library of material gathered to support the tours, which people who take tours are allowed to borrow. Over the years a ‘Tour Friends’ group has grown up of people who continue to meet on a casual basis after returning home from a tour, with the guides volunteering occasional talks.Edutours now face a problem as the guides are retiring. As it was the guides who originally suggested the tour destinations and themes, the success of the operation depends on ensuring that the tours can continue when the guides no longer want to be a part of them. They would like to establish a kind of advisory system so people who want to go somewhere different on a similar theme can choose a new tour. They would also like to identify ‘gaps’ in their tour itineraries to help them recruit new tour guides. Edutours would also like to extend the casual nature of the talks and library resources to a formal social media system.Edutours have been googling KM tools and identified a shortlist of products, and now need your help in evaluating which of them might be useful for their needs. They already have Microsoft Word, Excel, and Outlook.”5TO DO:(a) Briefly summarise the main features of Edutours in terms of (for example) its structure, membership, business model, topics they are concerned with, existing technological infrastructure, legal obligations, external organisations, and the likely “organisational culture”2 you might expect to find inside the organisation. This is to clarify the context for your answer to part (b), as your evaluation of the tools will need to fit the organisation’s needs and habits of working.(b) Select any two of the KM tools from the list of products, techniques and standards below. For each of your chosen tools:? Explain briefly what the tool does (use your own words, don’t just paste from the product web page).? State which of the four categories we have discussed (‘creating and discovering’, etc) the tool falls into.? Assess whether the tool is a good fit to the organisation’s needs and if so, explain how the organisation could use it. Be as specific as you can, based on the case study description.? Describe any potential disadvantages or limitations of the tool for Edutours.The tools are:- MongoDB http://www.mongodb.org/- Microsoft Sharepoint http://products.office.com/en-AU/sharepoint/collaboration- eXo http://www.exoplatform.com/- Vanguard Expert System Software http://www.vanguardsw.com/solutions/application/expert-systems/- MindView Mind Mapping software http://www.matchware.com/en/products/mindview/default.htm- Facebook http://facebook.com/- Lesson Learner http://www.lessonlearner.com/software.htmlYou will be marked for this question on the following criteria:? A good summary of the organisational context in (a)? A good discussion of how the selected tools would support organisational needs in (b), including any potential limitations2 The definition of organisational culture at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html is adequate for our purposes here.6Question 3 – MetadataThe purpose of this question is for you to demonstrate understanding and competence in the application of metadata to different types of resources.It addresses the broad learning objective of: Analyse a knowledge management problem and recommend appropriate tools and techniques for its solutionThe Dublin Core Metadata Set is intended to provide a ‘core’ set of metadata descriptors that can be applied to any resource. In this question you are to apply Dublin Core metadata to examples of types of resources that could potentially be used by an organisation in its KM practice.For simplicity we will use the legacy set of Dublin Core Elements:ContributorFormatRightsCoverageIdentifierSubjectCreatorLanguageSourceDatePublisherTitleDescriptionRelationTypeTO DO:There are two different resources listed below. Create Dublin Core metadata for EACH of them:1. A physical object:The score for the song ‘Waltzing Matilda’ described here: http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6077758?q&versionId=7038006 and here: http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-166639875/viewIMPORTANT: Make sure you describe the physical object itself, NOT the website it is shown on here. The information you need to use in your DC metadata can be found by interpreting the catalogue and other information provided on the site.2. A web page:The Geoscience Australia home page: http://www.ga.gov.au/IMPORTANT: Here you need to describe the web page and its contents. The information you need to use in your DC metadata can be found by interpreting the information provided on the site and other information such as the html source (where appropriate).(turn over page for further instructions)7In your answer, present the elements in table form, e.g.ELEMENTQUALIFIER (element refinement and/or element encoding schemeCONTENTComment/explanationDC.TitleMurdoch University Assessment PolicyTitle is as used in the documentDC.DateDC.Date.CreatedSCHEME=ISO86012004-10-25Please note you are NOT expected to embed the elements in html or RDF.You will be marked for this question on the following criteria:? Correct use of the DC Elements in describing the resources, including qualified DC? Thorough use of the DC Elements to provide complete descriptions of the resources.IMPORTANT: Read the notes below before attempting the question.1. To answer this question, you will need to examine the resource and any available information about it and make a judgement as to how that information should best be represented in the DC Elements. You can make use of any metadata or descriptive information that is already given for the resource, if you think it is useful (for example by looking at the source code of the web page, or other information on the website). However, this alone will not be sufficient, as none of the resources is already fully described in Dublin Core to the extent that is required for your answer.2. Refer to the Dublin Core Element definitions here http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/ and to the usage guides here: http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/elements.shtml and (more current) here: http://wiki.dublincore.org/index.php/User_Guide/Creating_Metadata3. Where appropriate you should make use of the Dublin Core Qualifiers, as described here http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/qualifiers.shtml. Examples of qualifiers include Encoding Scheme (such as using the ISO8601 encoding scheme for dates) and Element Refinements, such as using DC.Date.Created to specify a more precise meaning for ‘Date’. Usage of these is also illustrated at http://wiki.dublincore.org/index.php/User_Guide/Creating_Metadata4. Be as thorough as you can in applying relevant metadata to the resource – you should aim to use all of the Elements. Where you do not have enough information for an element, give your best assessment and state your assumptions separately. If you consider that a particular element does NOT apply to the resource, explain why.
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